11While King Nebuchadnezzar was ruling over the Assyrians from his capital city of Nineveh, King Arphaxad ruled over the Medes from his capital city of Ecbatana. 2Round Ecbatana King Arphaxad built a wall thirty metres high and 22 metres thick of cut stones; each stone was 130 centimetres thick and 260 centimetres long. 3At each gate he built a tower 44 metres high, with a foundation 26 metres thick. 4Each gateway was thirty metres high and eighteen metres wide — wide enough for his whole army to march through, with the infantry in formation.
5In the twelfth year of his reign King Nebuchadnezzar went to war against King Arphaxad in the large plain round the city of Rages. 6Many nations joined forces with King Arphaxad — all the people who lived in the mountains, those who lived along the rivers Tigris, Euphrates, and Hydaspes, as well as those who lived in the plain ruled by King Arioch of Elam. Many nations joined this Chelodite alliance.
7Then King Nebuchadnezzar of Assyria sent a message to the Persians and to the people to the west, in the regions of Cilicia, Damascus, Lebanon, Antilebanon, to those along the coast, 8and in the regions of Carmel, Gilead, northern Galilee, and the Valley of Jezreel. 9-10The message also went to the people living in Samaria and the nearby towns, to those in the area west of the River Jordan as far as the cities of Jerusalem, Bethany, Chelous, and Kadesh, and to the district of Goshen. The message was also taken to the Egyptian cities of Tahpanhes, Rameses, Tanis, and Memphis, and the district up the River Nile to the Sudan border. 11But everyone in this whole region ignored King Nebuchadnezzar's appeal and refused to take part in the war. They thought that he had no chance of winning the war, so they were not afraid of him and sent his messengers back disgraced and empty-handed.
12This made Nebuchadnezzar so furious that he vowed he would risk his entire kingdom to take revenge on all those people. He vowed that he would put to death the entire population of Cilicia, Damascus, Syria, Moab, Ammon, Judah, and Egypt — everyone from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf.
13In the seventeenth year of his reign King Nebuchadnezzar led his army into battle against King Arphaxad. He defeated all Arphaxad's forces, including his entire cavalry, and all his charioteers. 14Then Nebuchadnezzar occupied all the towns in the land of Media and advanced against the city of Ecbatana. He captured the city's towers, looted its markets, and made that beautiful city a ruin. 15He captured King Arphaxad in the mountains round Rages and killed him. After Arphaxad's death, 16Nebuchadnezzar and his entire army returned to Nineveh with all the loot taken in battle. There they relaxed and feasted for four months.
21In the eighteenth year of Nebuchadnezzar's reign, on the 22nd day of the first month of that year, he and his advisers decided to carry out his threat to take revenge on all those countries that had refused to help him. 2-3The king called his general staff and senior officers together and reported in detail how those countries had betrayed him. He and his officers agreed that everyone who had refused to help him in the war should be put to death. Then he described to them his plan of attack.
4At the close of the meeting, Nebuchadnezzar gave the following command to Holofernes, who was the general in command of his armies and second in command to the king: 5“I, Nebuchadnezzar, the great king and ruler of all the earth, command you to choose some experienced soldiers: 120,000 infantry and 12,000 cavalry. 6Then attack the lands to the west because they refused to respond to my appeal for help. 7Warn them that they must prepare their offerings of earth and water to show that they have surrendered unconditionally. I will make them feel the full force of my anger and completely destroy them. My armies will march over every foot of their land and plunder it as they go. 8I will fill the valleys with their dead bodies and will choke up every stream and river with so many corpses that they will all overflow. 9I will take captive all those who are left alive and carry them off to the ends of the earth.
10“But you, Holofernes, are ordered to go ahead of me and occupy all their territories in advance. If they surrender to you, hold them for me until I come to punish them. 11But if they resist, do not spare them. Kill them and loot the entire region under your control. 12I have taken a solemn vow, and at the risk of my life and my royal power I am determined to do what I have vowed to do. 13Do not disobey me in any way. I am your king; remember that, and carry out without delay every order that I have given you.”
14So Holofernes left the king and called together all the commanders, generals, and officers of the Assyrian army. 15Just as the king had ordered, he chose 120,000 of the best infantrymen and 12,000 of the best mounted archers 16and arranged them in battle formation. 17He also took along a very large number of camels, donkeys, and mules to carry the equipment, as well as many sheep, cattle, and goats for food. 18Every soldier received plenty of rations and a large payment of gold and silver from the royal treasury.
19Then Holofernes and his entire army set out, advancing ahead of King Nebuchadnezzar. The chariots, the cavalry, and the infantry marched out to overrun the entire western region. 20
Other troops went with them. There were so many that it was impossible to count them — they were like a swarm of locusts or like grains of sand in the desert.
21Three days after they had left the city of Nineveh, they reached the plains round Bectileth near the mountains north of Cilicia, where they set up camp. 22From there Holofernes advanced into the hill-country with his entire army, his infantry, cavalry, and chariots. 23He totally destroyed the countries of Libya and Lydia, then plundered all the people of Rassis and the Ishmaelites who lived on the edge of the desert, south of the land of the Chelleans.
24Then Holofernes crossed the River Euphrates and marched through the land of Mesopotamia, completely destroying all the walled towns along the River Abron as far as the sea. 25He seized the territory of Cilicia, killing everyone who resisted him, and went as far as the southern borders of the land of Japheth, near Arabia. 26He surrounded the Midianites, burnt down their tents, and slaughtered their sheep.
27Holofernes went down into the plains round Damascus during the wheat harvest, burnt all the fields, slaughtered the flocks and herds, looted the towns, devastated the entire countryside, and killed all the young men. 28Panic seized all the people who lived along the Mediterranean Sea, and they shook with fear. Everyone in the towns of Tyre, Sidon, Sur, Ocina, Jamnia, Ashdod, and Ashkelon was terrified.