Good News Translation (GNB)
18

Jethro Visits Moses

181Moses' father-in-law Jethro, the priest of Midian, heard about everything that God had done for Moses and the people of Israel when he led them out of Egypt. 2

18.2–3:
Ex 2.21–22
So he came to Moses, bringing with him Moses' wife Zipporah, who had been left behind, 3
18.3:
Acts 7.29
and Gershom and Eliezer, her two sons. (Moses had said, “I have been a foreigner in a strange land”; so he had named one son Gershom.18.3 Gershom: This name sounds like the Hebrew for “foreigner”. 4He had also said, “The God of my father helped me and saved me from being killed by the king of Egypt”; so he had named the other son Eliezer.18.4 Eliezer: This name sounds like the Hebrew for “God helps me”.) 5Jethro came with Moses' wife and her two sons into the desert where Moses was camped at the holy mountain. 6He had sent word to Moses that they were coming, 7so Moses went out to meet him, bowed before him, and kissed him. They asked about each other's health and then went into Moses' tent. 8Moses told Jethro everything that the LORD had done to the king and the people of Egypt in order to rescue the Israelites. He also told him about the hardships the people had faced on the way and how the LORD had saved them. 9When Jethro heard all this, he was happy 10and said, “Praise the LORD, who saved you from the king and the people of Egypt! Praise the LORD, who saved his people from slavery! 11Now I know that the LORD is greater than all the gods, because he did this when the Egyptians treated the Israelites with such contempt.” 12Then Jethro brought an offering to be burnt whole and other sacrifices to be offered to God; and Aaron and all the leaders of Israel went with him to eat the sacred meal as an act of worship.

The Appointment of Judges

(Deut 1.9–18)

13The next day Moses was settling disputes among the people, and he was kept busy from morning till night. 14When Jethro saw everything that Moses had to do, he asked, “What is all this that you are doing for the people? Why are you doing this all alone, with people standing here from morning till night to consult you?”

15Moses answered, “I must do this because the people come to me to learn God's will. 16When two people have a dispute, they come to me, and I decide which one of them is right, and I tell them God's commands and laws.”

17Then Jethro said, “You are not doing it the right way. 18You will wear yourself out and these people as well. This is too much for you to do alone. 19Now let me give you some good advice, and God will be with you. It is right for you to represent the people before God and bring their disputes to him. 20You should teach them God's commands and explain to them how they should live and what they should do. 21But in addition, you should choose some capable men and appoint them as leaders of the people: leaders of thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens. They must be God-fearing men who can be trusted and who cannot be bribed. 22Let them serve as judges for the people on a permanent basis. They can bring all the difficult cases to you, but they themselves can decide all the smaller disputes. That will make it easier for you, as they share your burden. 23If you do this, as God commands, you will not wear yourself out, and all these people can go home with their disputes settled.”

24Moses took Jethro's advice 25and chose capable men from among all the Israelites. He appointed them as leaders of thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens. 26They served as judges for the people on a permanent basis, bringing the difficult cases to Moses but deciding the smaller disputes themselves.

27Then Moses said goodbye to Jethro, and Jethro went back home.

19

The Israelites at Mount Sinai

191-2The people of Israel left Rephidim, and on the first day of the third month after they had left Egypt they came to the desert of Sinai. There they set up camp at the foot of Mount Sinai, 3and Moses went up the mountain to meet with God.

The LORD called to him from the mountain and told him to say to the Israelites, Jacob's descendants: 4“You saw what I, the LORD, did to the Egyptians and how I carried you as an eagle carries her young on her wings, and brought you here to me. 5

19.5:
Deut 4.20
7.6
14.2
26.18
Tit 2.14
19.5–6:
1 Pet 2.9
Now, if you will obey me and keep my covenant, you will be my own people. The whole earth is mine, but you will be my chosen people, 6
19.6:
Rev 1.6
5.10
a people dedicated to me alone, and you will serve me as priests.” 7So Moses went down and called the leaders of the people together and told them everything that the LORD had commanded him. 8Then all the people answered together, “We will do everything that the LORD has said,” and Moses reported this to the LORD.

9The LORD said to Moses, “I will come to you in a thick cloud, so that the people will hear me speaking with you and will believe you from now on.”

Moses told the LORD what the people had answered, 10and the LORD said to him, “Go to the people and tell them to spend today and tomorrow purifying themselves for worship. They must wash their clothes 11and be ready the day after tomorrow. On that day I will come down on Mount Sinai, where all the people can see me. 12

19.12–13:
Heb 12.18–20
Mark a boundary round the mountain that the people must not cross, and tell them not to go up the mountain or even get near it. If anyone sets foot on it, he is to be put to death; 13he must either be stoned or shot with arrows, without anyone touching him. This applies to both men and animals; they must be put to death. But when the trumpet is blown, then the people are to go up to the mountain.”

14Then Moses came down the mountain and told the people to get ready for worship. So they washed their clothes, 15and Moses said to them, “Be ready by the day after tomorrow and don't have sexual intercourse in the meantime.”

16

19.16:
Rev 4.5
19.16–18:
Deut 4.11–12
On the morning of the third day there was thunder and lightning, a thick cloud appeared on the mountain, and a very loud trumpet blast was heard. All the people in the camp trembled with fear. 17Moses led them out of the camp to meet God, and they stood at the foot of the mountain. 18The whole of Mount Sinai was covered with smoke, because the LORD had come down on it in fire. The smoke went up like the smoke of a furnace, and all the people trembled violently. 19The sound of the trumpet became louder and louder. Moses spoke, and God answered him with thunder. 20The LORD came down on the top of Mount Sinai and called Moses to the top of the mountain. Moses went up 21and the LORD said to him, “Go down and warn the people not to cross the boundary to come and look at me; if they do, many of them will die. 22Even the priests who come near me must purify themselves, or I will punish them.”

23Moses said to the LORD, “The people cannot come up, because you commanded us to consider the mountain sacred and to mark a boundary round it.”

24The LORD replied, “Go down and bring Aaron back with you. But the priests and the people must not cross the boundary to come up to me, or I will punish them.” 25Moses then went down to the people and told them what the LORD had said.

20

The Ten Commandments

(Deut 5.1–21)

201God spoke, and these were his words: 2“I am the LORD your God who brought you out of Egypt, where you were slaves.

3“Worship no god but me.

4

20.4–5:
Ex 34.17
Lev 19.4
26.1
Deut 4.15–18
27.15
“Do not make for yourselves images of anything in heaven or on earth or in the water under the earth. 5
20.5–6:
Ex 34.6–7
Num 14.18
Deut 7.9–10
Do not bow down to any idol or worship it, because I am the LORD your God and I tolerate no rivals. I bring punishment on those who hate me and on their descendants down to the third and fourth generation. 6But I show my love to thousands of generations20.6 thousands of generations; or thousands. of those who love me and obey my laws.

7

20.7:
Lev 19.12
“Do not use my name for evil purposes, for I, the LORD your God, will punish anyone who misuses my name.

8

20.8:
Ex 16.23–30
31.12–14
“Observe the Sabbath and keep it holy. 9
20.9–10:
Ex 23.12
31.15
34.21
35.2
Lev 23.3
You have six days in which to do your work, 10but the seventh day is a day of rest dedicated to me. On that day no one is to work — neither you, your children, your slaves, your animals, nor the foreigners who live in your country. 11
20.11:
Gen 2.1–3
Ex 31.17
In six days I, the LORD, made the earth, the sky, the sea, and everything in them, but on the seventh day I rested. That is why I, the LORD, blessed the Sabbath and made it holy.

12

20.12:
Deut 27.16
Mt 15.4
19.19
Mk 7.10
10.19
Lk 18.20
Eph 6.2,3
“Respect your father and your mother, so that you may live a long time in the land that I am giving you.

13

20.13:
Gen 9.6
Lev 24.17
Mt 5.21
19.18
Mk 10.19
Lk 18.20
Rom 13.9
Jas 2.11
“Do not commit murder.

14

20.14:
Lev 20.10
Mt 5.27
19.18
Mk 10.19
Lk 18.20
Rom 13.9
Jas 2.11
“Do not commit adultery.

15

20.15:
Lev 19.11
Mt 19.18
Mk 10.19
Lk 18.20
Rom 13.9
“Do not steal.

16

20.16:
Ex 23.1
Mt 19.18
Mk 10.19
Lk 18.20
“Do not accuse anyone falsely.

17

20.17:
Rom 7.7
13.9
“Do not desire another man's house; do not desire his wife, his slaves, his cattle, his donkeys, or anything else that he owns.”

The People's Fear

(Deut 5.22–33)

18

20.18–19:
Heb 12.18–19
When the people heard the thunder and the trumpet blast and saw the lightning and the smoking mountain, they trembled with fear and stood a long way off. 19They said to Moses, “If you speak to us, we will listen; but we are afraid that if God speaks to us, we will die.”

20Moses replied, “Don't be afraid; God has only come to test you and make you keep on obeying him, so that you will not sin.” 21But the people continued to stand a long way off, and only Moses went near the dark cloud where God was.

Laws about Altars

22The LORD commanded Moses to say to the Israelites: “You have seen how I, the LORD, have spoken to you from heaven. 23Do not make for yourselves gods of silver or gold to be worshipped in addition to me. 24Make an altar of earth for me, and on it sacrifice your sheep and your cattle as offerings to be completely burnt and as fellowship offerings. In every place that I set aside for you to worship me, I will come to you and bless you. 25

20.25:
Deut 27.5–7
Josh 8.31
If you make an altar of stone for me, do not build it out of cut stones, because when you use a chisel on stones, you make them unfit for my use. 26Do not build an altar for me with steps leading up to it; if you do, you will expose yourselves as you go up the steps.