11In this book are the words that Moses spoke to the people of Israel when they were in the wilderness east of the River Jordan. They were in the Jordan Valley near Suph, between the town of Paran on one side and the towns of Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth, and Dizahab on the other. 2(It takes eleven days to travel from Mount Sinai to Kadesh Barnea by way of the hill country of Edom.) 3On the first day of the eleventh month of the fortieth year after they had left Egypt, Moses told the people everything the LORD had commanded him to tell them. 4
This was after the LORD1.4 the LORD; or Moses. had defeated King Sihon of the Amorites, who ruled in the town of Heshbon, and King Og of Bashan, who ruled in the towns of Ashtaroth and Edrei. 5It was while the people were east of the Jordan in the territory of Moab that Moses began to explain God's laws and teachings.
He said, 6“When we were at Mount Sinai, the LORD our God said to us, ‘You have stayed long enough at this mountain. 7Break camp and move on. Go to the hill country of the Amorites and to all the surrounding regions — to the Jordan Valley, to the hill country and the lowlands, to the southern region, and to the Mediterranean coast. Go to the land of Canaan and on beyond the Lebanon Mountains as far as the great River Euphrates. 8All of this is the land which I, the LORD, promised to give to your ancestors, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and to their descendants. Go and occupy it.’ ”
9Moses said to the people, “While we were still at Mount Sinai, I told you, ‘The responsibility for leading you is too much for me. I can't do it alone. 10The LORD your God has made you as numerous as the stars in the sky. 11May the LORD, the God of your ancestors, make you increase a thousand times more and make you prosperous, as he promised! 12But how can I alone bear the heavy responsibility for settling your disputes? 13Choose some wise, understanding, and experienced men from each tribe, and I will put them in charge of you.’ 14And you agreed that this was a good thing to do. 15So I took the wise and experienced leaders you chose from your tribes, and I placed them in charge of you. Some were responsible for a thousand people, some for a hundred, some for fifty, and some for ten. I also appointed other officials throughout the tribes.
16“At that time I instructed them, ‘Listen to the disputes that come up among your people. Judge every dispute fairly, whether it concerns only your own people or involves foreigners who live among you. 17Show no partiality in your decisions; judge everyone on the same basis, no matter who they are. Do not be afraid of anyone, for the decisions you make come from God. If any case is too difficult for you, bring it to me, and I will decide it.’ 18At the same time I gave you instructions for everything else you were to do.
19“We did what the LORD our God commanded us. We left Mount Sinai and went through that vast and fearful desert on the way to the hill country of the Amorites. When we reached Kadesh Barnea, 20-21I said, ‘You have now come to the hill country of the Amorites, which the LORD our God, the God of our ancestors, is giving us. Look, there it is. Go and occupy it as he commanded. Do not hesitate or be afraid.’
22“But you came to me and said, ‘Let's send men ahead of us to spy out the land, so that they can tell us the best route to take and what kind of cities are there.’
23“That seemed a good thing to do, so I selected twelve men, one from each tribe. 24They went into the hill country as far as the Valley of Eshcol and explored it. 25They brought us back some fruit they found there, and reported that the land which the LORD our God was giving us was very fertile.
“But you rebelled against the command of the LORD your God, and you would not enter the land. 27You grumbled to one another: ‘The LORD hates us. He brought us out of Egypt just to hand us over to these Amorites, so that they could kill us. 28Why should we go there? We are afraid. The men we sent tell us that the people there are stronger and taller than we are, and that they live in cities with walls that reach the sky. They saw giants there!’
29“But I said, ‘Don't be afraid of those people. 30The LORD your God will lead you, and he will fight for you, just as you saw him do in Egypt 31
and in the desert. You saw how he brought you safely all the way to this place, just as a father would carry his son.’ 32
But in spite of what I said, you still would not trust the LORD, 33even though he always went ahead of you to find a place for you to camp. To show you the way, he went in front of you in a pillar of fire by night and in a pillar of cloud by day.
“The LORD heard your complaints and became angry, and so he solemnly declared, 35‘Not one of you from this evil generation will enter the fertile land that I promised to give your ancestors. 36Only Caleb son of Jephunneh will enter it. He has remained faithful to me, and I will give him and his descendants the land that he has explored.’ 37Because of you the LORD also became angry with me and said, ‘Not even you, Moses, will enter the land. 38But strengthen the determination of your helper, Joshua son of Nun. He will lead Israel to occupy the land.’
39“Then the LORD said to all of us, ‘Your children, who are still too young to know right from wrong, will enter the land — the children you said would be seized by your enemies. I will give the land to them, and they will occupy it. 40But as for you people, turn round and go back into the desert along the road to the Gulf of Aqaba.’
41“You replied, ‘Moses, we have sinned against the LORD. But now we will attack, just as the LORD our God commanded us.’ Then each one of you got ready to fight, thinking it would be easy to invade the hill country.
42“But the LORD said to me, ‘Warn them not to attack, for I will not be with them, and their enemies will defeat them.’ 43I told you what the LORD had said, but you paid no attention. You rebelled against him, and in your pride you marched into the hill country. 44Then the Amorites who lived in those hills came out against you like a swarm of bees. They chased you as far as Hormah and defeated you there in the hill country of Edom. 45So you cried out to the LORD for help, but he would not listen to you or pay any attention to you.
46“So then, after we had stayed at Kadesh for a long time,
we finally turned and went into the desert, along the road to the Gulf of Aqaba, as the LORD had commanded, and we spent a long time wandering about in the hill country of Edom.
2“Then the LORD told me 3that we had spent enough time wandering about in those hills and that we should go north. 4
He told me to give you the following instructions: ‘You are about to go through the hill country of Edom, the territory of your distant relatives, the descendants of Esau. They will be afraid of you, 5but you must not start a war with them, because I am not going to give you so much as a square metre of their land. I have given Edom to Esau's descendants. 6You may buy food and water from them.’
7“Remember how the LORD your God has blessed you in everything that you have done. He has taken care of you as you wandered through this vast desert. He has been with you these forty years, and you have had everything you needed.
8“So we moved on and left the road that goes from the towns of Elath and Eziongeber to the Dead Sea, and we turned north-east towards Moab. 9
The LORD said to me, ‘Don't trouble the people of Moab, the descendants of Lot, or start a war against them. I have given them the city of Ar, and I am not going to give you any of their land.’ ”
10(A mighty race of giants called the Emim used to live in Ar. They were as tall as the Anakim, another race of giants. 11Like the Anakim they were also known as Rephaim; but the Moabites called them Emim. 12The Horites used to live in Edom, but the descendants of Esau chased them out, destroyed their nation, and settled there themselves, just as the Israelites later chased their enemies out of the land that the LORD gave them.)
13“Then we crossed the River Zered as the LORD told us to do. 14
This was 38 years after we had left Kadesh Barnea. All the fighting men of that generation had died, as the LORD had said they would. 15The LORD kept on opposing them until he had destroyed them all.
16“After they had all died, 17the LORD said to us, 18‘Today you are to pass through the territory of Moab by way of Ar. 19
You will then be near the land of the Ammonites, the descendants of Lot. Don't trouble them or start a war against them, because I am not going to give you any of the land that I have given them.’ ”
20(This territory is also known as the land of the Rephaim, the name of the people who used to live there; the Ammonites called them Zamzummim. 21They were as tall as the Anakim. There were many of them, and they were a mighty race. But the LORD destroyed them, so that the Ammonites took over their land and settled there. 22The LORD had done the same thing for the Edomites, the descendants of Esau, who live in the hill country of Edom. He destroyed the Horites, so that the Edomites took over their land and settled there, where they still live. 23The land along the Mediterranean coast had been settled by people from the island of Crete. They had destroyed the Avvim, the original inhabitants, and had taken over all their land as far south as the city of Gaza.)
24“After we had passed through Moab, the LORD said to us, ‘Now, start out and cross the River Arnon. I am placing in your power Sihon, the Amorite king of Heshbon, along with his land. Attack him, and begin occupying his land. 25From today on I will make people everywhere afraid of you. Everyone will tremble with fear at the mention of your name.’
26“Then I sent messengers from the desert of Kedemoth to King Sihon of Heshbon with the following offer of peace: 27‘Let us pass through your country. We will go straight through and not leave the road. 28We will pay for the food we eat and the water we drink. All we want to do is to pass through your country, 29until we cross the River Jordan into the land that the LORD our God is giving us. The descendants of Esau, who live in Edom, and the Moabites, who live in Ar, allowed us to pass through their territory.’
30“But King Sihon would not let us pass through his country. The LORD your God had made him stubborn and rebellious, so that we could defeat him and take his territory, which we still occupy.
31“Then the LORD said to me, ‘Look, I have made King Sihon and his land helpless before you; take his land and occupy it.’ 32Sihon came out with all his men to fight us near the town of Jahaz, 33but the LORD our God put him in our power, and we killed him, his sons, and all his men. 34At the same time we captured and destroyed every town, and put everyone to death, men, women, and children. We left no survivors. 35We took the livestock and plundered the towns. 36The LORD our God let us capture all the towns from Aroer, on the edge of the valley of the Arnon, and the city in the middle of that valley, all the way to Gilead. No town had walls too strong for us. 37But we did not go near the territory of the Ammonites or to the banks of the River Jabbok or to the towns of the hill country or to any other place where the LORD our God had commanded us not to go.
31“Next, we moved north towards the region of Bashan, and King Og came out with all his men to fight us near the town of Edrei. 2But the LORD said to me, ‘Don't be afraid of him. I am going to give him, his men, and all his territory to you. Do the same to him as you did to Sihon the Amorite king who ruled in Heshbon.’
3“So the LORD also placed King Og and his people in our power, and we slaughtered them all. 4At the same time we captured all his towns — there was not one that we did not take. In all we captured sixty towns — the whole region of Argob, where King Og of Bashan ruled. 5All these towns were fortified with high walls, gates, and bars to lock the gates, and there were also many villages without walls. 6We destroyed all the towns and put to death all the men, women, and children, just as we did in the towns that belonged to King Sihon of Heshbon. 7We took the livestock and plundered the towns.
8“At that time we took from those two Amorite kings the land east of the River Jordan, from the River Arnon to Mount Hermon. 9(Mount Hermon is called Sirion by the Sidonians, and Senir by the Amorites.) 10We took all the territory of King Og of Bashan: the cities on the plateau, the regions of Gilead and of Bashan, as far east as the towns of Salecah and Edrei.”
11(King Og was the last of the Rephaim. His coffin,3.11 coffin; or bed. made of stone,3.11 stone; or iron. was four metres long and almost two metres wide according to standard measurements. It can still be seen in the Ammonite city of Rabbah.)
12“When we took possession of the land, I assigned to the tribes of Reuben and Gad the territory north of the town of Aroer near the River Arnon and part of the hill country of Gilead, along with its towns. 13To half the tribe of Manasseh I assigned the rest of Gilead and also all of Bashan, where Og had ruled, that is, the entire Argob region.”
(Bashan was known as the land of the Rephaim. 14Jair, from the tribe of Manasseh, took the entire region of Argob, that is, Bashan, as far as the border of Geshur and Maacah. He named the villages after himself, and they are still known as the villages of Jair.)
15“I assigned Gilead to the clan of Machir of the tribe of Manasseh. 16And to the tribes of Reuben and Gad I assigned the territory from Gilead to the River Arnon. The middle of the river was their southern boundary, and their northern boundary was the River Jabbok, part of which formed the Ammonite border. 17On the west their territory extended to the River Jordan, from Lake Galilee in the north down to the Dead Sea in the south and to the foot of Mount Pisgah on the east.
“At the same time, I gave them the following instructions: ‘The LORD our God has given you this land east of the Jordan to occupy. Now arm your fighting men and send them across the Jordan ahead of the other tribes of Israel, to help them to occupy their land. 19Only your wives, children, and livestock — I know you have a lot of livestock — will remain behind in the towns that I have assigned to you. 20Help your fellow-Israelites until they occupy the land that the LORD is giving them west of the Jordan and until the LORD lets them live there in peace, as he has already done here for you. After that, you may return to this land which I have assigned to you.’
21“Then I instructed Joshua: ‘You have seen all that the LORD your God did to those two kings, Sihon and Og; and he will do the same to everyone else whose land you invade. 22Don't be afraid of them, for the LORD your God will fight for you.’
“At that time I earnestly prayed, 24‘Sovereign LORD, I know that you have shown me only the beginning of the great and wonderful things you are going to do. There is no god in heaven or on earth who can do the mighty things that you have done! 25Let me cross the River Jordan, LORD, and see the fertile land on the other side, the beautiful hill country and the Lebanon Mountains.’
26“But because of you people the LORD was angry with me and would not listen. Instead, he said, ‘That's enough! Don't mention this again! 27Go to the peak of Mount Pisgah and look to the north and to the south, to the east and to the west. Look carefully at what you see, because you will never go across the Jordan. 28Give Joshua his instructions. Strengthen his determination, because he will lead the people across to occupy the land that you see.’
29“So we remained in the valley opposite the town of Bethpeor.”