101In the hundred and sixtieth year Alexander, the son of Antiochus surnamed Epiphanes, went up and took Ptolemais: for the people had received him, by means whereof he reigned there,
2Now when king Demetrius heard thereof, he gathered together an exceeding great host, and went forth against him to fight.
3Moreover Demetrius sent letters unto Jonathan with loving words, so as he magnified him.
4For said he, Let us first make peace with him, before he join with Alexander against us:
5Else he will remember all the evils that we have done against him, and against his brethren and his people.
6Wherefore he gave him authority to gather together an host, and to provide weapons, that he might aid him in battle: he commanded also that the hostages that were in the tower should be delivered him.
7Then came Jonathan to Jerusalem, and read the letters in the audience of all the people, and of them that were in the tower:
8Who were sore afraid, when they heard that the king had given him authority to gather together an host.
9Whereupon they of the tower delivered their hostages unto Jonathan, and he delivered them unto their parents.
10This done, Jonathan settled himself in Jerusalem, and began to build and repair the city.
11And he commanded the workmen to build the walls and the mount Sion and about with square stones for fortification; and they did so.
12Then the strangers, that were in the fortresses which Bacchides had built, fled away;
13Insomuch as every man left his place, and went into his own country.
14Only at Bethsura certain of those that had forsaken the law and the commandments remained still: for it was their place of refuge.
15Now when king Alexander had heard what promises Demetrius had sent unto Jonathan: when also it was told him of the battles and noble acts which he and his brethren had done, and of the pains that they had endured,
16He said, Shall we find such another man? now therefore we will make him our friend and confederate.
17Upon this he wrote a letter, and sent it unto him, according to these words, saying,
18King Alexander to his brother Jonathan sendeth greeting:
19We have heard of thee, that thou art a man of great power, and meet to be our friend.
20Wherefore now this day we ordain thee to be the high priest of thy nation, and to be called the king’s friend; (and therewithal he sent him a purple robe and a crown of gold:) and require thee to take our part, and keep friendship with us.
21So in the seventh month of the hundred and sixtieth year, at the feast of the tabernacles, Jonathan put on the holy robe, and gathered together forces, and provided much armour.
22Whereof when Demetrius heard, he was very sorry, and said,
23What have we done, that Alexander hath prevented us in making amity with the Jews to strengthen himself?
24I also will write unto them words of encouragement, and promise them dignities and gifts, that I may have their aid.
25He sent unto them therefore to this effect: King Demetrius unto the people of the Jews sendeth greeting:
26Whereas ye have kept covenants with us, and continued in our friendship, not joining yourselves with our enemies, we have heard hereof, and are glad.
27Wherefore now continue ye still to be faithful unto us, and we will well recompense you for the things ye do in our behalf,
28And will grant you many immunities, and give you rewards.
29And now do I free you, and for your sake I release all the Jews, from tributes, and from the customs of salt, and from crown taxes,
30And from that which appertaineth unto me to receive for the third part or the seed, and the half of the fruit of the trees, I release it from this day forth, so that they shall not be taken of the land of Judea, nor of the three governments which are added thereunto out of the country of Samaria and Galilee, from this day forth for evermore.
31Let Jerusalem also be holy and free, with the borders thereof, both from tenths and tributes.
32And as for the tower which is at Jerusalem, I yield up authority over it, and give the high priest, that he may set in it such men as he shall choose to keep it.
33Moreover I freely set at liberty every one of the Jews, that were carried captives out of the land of Judea into any part of my kingdom, and I will that all my officers remit the tributes even of their cattle.
34Furthermore I will that all the feasts, and sabbaths, and new moons, and solemn days, and the three days before the feast, and the three days after the feast shall be all of immunity and freedom for all the Jews in my realm.
35Also no man shall have authority to meddle with or to molest any of them in any matter.
36I will further, that there be enrolled among the king’s forces about thirty thousand men of the Jews, unto whom pay shall be given, as belongeth to all king’s forces.
37And of them some shall be placed in the king’s strong holds, of whom also some shall be set over the affairs of the kingdom, which are of trust: and I will that their overseers and governors be of themselves, and that they live after their own laws, even as the king hath commanded in the land of Judea.
38And concerning the three governments that are added to Judea from the country of Samaria, let them be joined with Judea, that they may be reckoned to be under one, nor bound to obey other authority than the high priest’s.
39As for Ptolemais, and the land pertaining thereto, I give it as a free gift to the sanctuary at Jerusalem for the necessary expences of the sanctuary.
40Moreover I give every year fifteen thousand shekels of silver out of the king’s accounts from the places appertaining.
41And all the overplus, which the officers payed not in as in former time, from henceforth shall be given toward the works of the temple.
42And beside this, the five thousand shekels of silver, which they took from the uses of the temple out of the accounts year by year, even those things shall be released, because they appertain to the priests that minister.
43And whosoever they be that flee unto the temple at Jerusalem, or be within the liberties hereof, being indebted unto the king, or for any other matter, let them be at liberty, and all that they have in my realm.
44For the building also and repairing of the works of the sanctuary expences shall be given of the king’s accounts.
45Yea, and for the building of the walls of Jerusalem, and the fortifying thereof round about, expences shall be given out of the king’s accounts, as also for the building of the walls in Judea.
46Now when Jonathan and the people heard these words, they gave no credit unto them, nor received them, because they remembered the great evil that he had done in Israel; for he had afflicted them very sore.
47But with Alexander they were well pleased, because he was the first that entreated of true peace with them, and they were confederate with him always.
48Then gathered king Alexander great forces, and camped over against Demetrius.
49And after the two kings had joined battle, Demetrius’ host fled: but Alexander followed after him, and prevailed against them.
50And he continued the battle very sore until the sun went down: and that day was Demetrius slain.
51Afterward Alexander sent ambassadors to Ptolemee king of Egypt with a message to this effect:
52Forasmuch as I am come again to my realm, and am set in the throne of my progenitors, and have gotten the dominion, and overthrown Demetrius, and recovered our country;
53For after I had joined battle with him, both he and his host was discomfited by us, so that we sit in the throne of his kingdom:
54Now therefore let us make a league of amity together, and give me now thy daughter to wife: and I will be thy son in law, and will give both thee and her as according to thy dignity.
55Then Ptolemee the king gave answer, saying, Happy be the day wherein thou didst return into the land of thy fathers, and satest in the throne of their kingdom.
56And now will I do to thee, as thou hast written: meet me therefore at Ptolemais, that we may see one another; for I will marry my daughter to thee according to thy desire.
57So Ptolemee went out of Egypt with his daughter Cleopatra, and they came unto Ptolemais in the hundred threescore and second year:
58Where king Alexander meeting him, he gave unto him his daughter Cleopatra, and celebrated her marriage at Ptolemais with great glory, as the manner of kings is.
59Now king Alexander had written unto Jonathan, that he should come and meet him.
60Who thereupon went honourably to Ptolemais, where he met the two kings, and gave them and their friends silver and gold, and many presents, and found favour in their sight.
61At that time certain pestilent fellows of Israel, men of a wicked life, assembled themselves against him, to accuse him: but the king would not hear them.
62Yea more than that, the king commanded to take off his garments, and clothe him in purple: and they did so.
63And he made him sit by himself, and said unto his princes, Go with him into the midst of the city, and make proclamation, that no man complain against him of any matter, and that no man trouble him for any manner of cause.
64Now when his accusers saw that he was honored according to the proclamation, and clothed in purple, they fled all away.
65So the king honoured him, and wrote him among his chief friends, and made him a duke, and partaker of his dominion.
66Afterward Jonathan returned to Jerusalem with peace and gladness.
67Furthermore in the hundred threescore and fifth year came Demetrius son of Demetrius out of Crete into the land of his fathers:
68Whereof when king Alexander heard tell, he was right sorry, and returned into Antioch.
69Then Demetrius made Apollonius the governor of Celosyria his general, who gathered together a great host, and camped in Jamnia, and sent unto Jonathan the high priest, saying,
70Thou alone liftest up thyself against us, and I am laughed to scorn for thy sake, and reproached: and why dost thou vaunt thy power against us in the mountains?
71Now therefore, if thou trustest in thine own strength, come down to us into the plain field, and there let us try the matter together: for with me is the power of the cities.
72Ask and learn who I am, and the rest that take our part, and they shall tell thee that thy foot is not able to stand before our face; for thy fathers have been twice put to flight in their own land.
73Wherefore now thou shalt not be able to abide the horsemen and so great a power in the plain, where is neither stone nor flint, nor place to flee unto.
74So when Jonathan heard these words of Apollonius, he was moved in his mind, and choosing ten thousand men he went out of Jerusalem, where Simon his brother met him for to help him.
75And he pitched his tents against Joppa: but; they of Joppa shut him out of the city, because Apollonius had a garrison there.
76Then Jonathan laid siege unto it: whereupon they of the city let him in for fear: and so Jonathan won Joppa.
77Whereof when Apollonius heard, he took three thousand horsemen, with a great host of footmen, and went to Azotus as one that journeyed, and therewithal drew him forth into the plain. because he had a great number of horsemen, in whom he put his trust.
78Then Jonathan followed after him to Azotus, where the armies joined battle.
79Now Apollonius had left a thousand horsemen in ambush.
80And Jonathan knew that there was an ambushment behind him; for they had compassed in his host, and cast darts at the people, from morning till evening.
81But the people stood still, as Jonathan had commanded them: and so the enemies’ horses were tired.
82Then brought Simon forth his host, and set them against the footmen, (for the horsemen were spent) who were discomfited by him, and fled.
83The horsemen also, being scattered in the field, fled to Azotus, and went into Bethdagon, their idol’s temple, for safety.
84But Jonathan set fire on Azotus, and the cities round about it, and took their spoils; and the temple of Dagon, with them that were fled into it, he burned with fire.
85Thus there were burned and slain with the sword well nigh eight thousand men.
86And from thence Jonathan removed his host, and camped against Ascalon, where the men of the city came forth, and met him with great pomp.
87After this returned Jonathan and his host unto Jerusalem, having any spoils.
88Now when king Alexander heard these things, he honoured Jonathan yet more.
89And sent him a buckle of gold, as the use is to be given to such as are of the king’s blood: he gave him also Accaron with the borders thereof in possession.
111And the king of Egypt gathered together a great host, like the sand that lieth upon the sea shore, and many ships, and went about through deceit to get Alexander’s kingdom, and join it to his own.
2Whereupon he took his journey into Spain in peaceable manner, so as they of the cities opened unto him, and met him: for king Alexander had commanded them so to do, because he was his brother in law.
3Now as Ptolemee entered into the cities, he set in every one of them a garrison of soldiers to keep it.
4And when he came near to Azotus, they shewed him the temple of Dagon that was burnt, and Azotus and the suburbs thereof that were destroyed, and the bodies that were cast abroad and them that he had burnt in the battle; for they had made heaps of them by the way where he should pass.
5Also they told the king whatsoever Jonathan had done, to the intent he might blame him: but the king held his peace.
6Then Jonathan met the king with great pomp at Joppa, where they saluted one another, and lodged.
7Afterward Jonathan, when he had gone with the king to the river called Eleutherus, returned again to Jerusalem.
8King Ptolemee therefore, having gotten the dominion of the cities by the sea unto Seleucia upon the sea coast, imagined wicked counsels against Alexander.
9Whereupon he sent ambasadors unto king Demetrius, saying, Come, let us make a league betwixt us, and I will give thee my daughter whom Alexander hath, and thou shalt reign in thy father’s kingdom:
10For I repent that I gave my daughter unto him, for he sought to slay me.
11Thus did he slander him, because he was desirous of his kingdom.
12Wherefore he took his daughter from him, and gave her to Demetrius, and forsook Alexander, so that their hatred was openly known.
13Then Ptolemee entered into Antioch, where he set two crowns upon his head, the crown of Asia, and of Egypt.
14In the mean season was king Alexander in Cilicia, because those that dwelt in those parts had revolted from him.
15But when Alexander heard of this, he came to war against him: whereupon king Ptolemee brought forth his host, and met him with a mighty power, and put him to flight.
16So Alexander fled into Arabia there to be defended; but king Ptolemee was exalted:
17For Zabdiel the Arabian took off Alexander’s head, and sent it unto Ptolemee.
18King Ptolemee also died the third day after, and they that were in the strong holds were slain one of another.
19By this means Demetrius reigned in the hundred threescore and seventh year.
20At the same time Jonathan gathered together them that were in Judea to take the tower that was in Jerusalem: and he made many engines of war against it.
21Then came ungodly persons, who hated their own people, went unto the king, and told him that Jonathan besieged the tower,
22Whereof when he heard, he was angry, and immediately removing, he came to Ptolemais, and wrote unto Jonathan, that he should not lay siege to the tower, but come and speak with him at Ptolemais in great haste.
23Nevertheless Jonathan, when he heard this, commanded to besiege it still: and he chose certain of the elders of Israel and the priests, and put himself in peril;
24And took silver and gold, and raiment, and divers presents besides, and went to Ptolemais unto the king, where he found favour in his sight.
25And though certain ungodly men of the people had made complaints against him,
26Yet the king entreated him as his predecessors had done before, and promoted him in the sight of all his friends,
27And confirmed him in the high priesthood, and in all the honours that he had before, and gave him preeminence among his chief friends.
28Then Jonathan desired the king, that he would make Judea free from tribute, as also the three governments, with the country of Samaria; and he promised him three hundred talents.
29So the king consented, and wrote letters unto Jonathan of all these things after this manner:
30King Demetrius unto his brother Jonathan, and unto the nation of the Jews, sendeth greeting:
31We send you here a copy of the letter which we did write unto our cousin Lasthenes concerning you, that ye might see it.
32King Demetrius unto his father Lasthenes sendeth greeting:
33We are determined to do good to the people of the Jews, who are our friends, and keep covenants with us, because of their good will toward us.
34Wherefore we have ratified unto them the borders of Judea, with the three governments of Apherema and Lydda and Ramathem, that are added unto Judea from the country of Samaria, and all things appertaining unto them, for all such as do sacrifice in Jerusalem, instead of the payments which the king received of them yearly aforetime out of the fruits of the earth and of trees.
35And as for other things that belong unto us, of the tithes and customs pertaining unto us, as also the saltpits, and the crown taxes, which are due unto us, we discharge them of them all for their relief.
36And nothing hereof shall be revoked from this time forth for ever.
37Now therefore see that thou make a copy of these things, and let it be delivered unto Jonathan, and set upon the holy mount in a conspicuous place.
38After this, when king Demetrius saw that the land was quiet before him, and that no resistance was made against him, he sent away all his forces, every one to his own place, except certain bands of strangers, whom he had gathered from the isles of the heathen: wherefore all the forces of his fathers hated him.
39Moreover there was one Tryphon, that had been of Alexander’s part afore, who, seeing that all the host murmured against Demetrius, went to Simalcue the Arabian that brought up Antiochus the young son of Alexander,
40And lay sore upon him to deliver him this young Antiochus, that he might reign in his father’s stead: he told him therefore all that Demetrius had done, and how his men of war were at enmity with him, and there he remained a long season.
41In the mean time Jonathan sent unto king Demetrius, that he would cast those of the tower out of Jerusalem, and those also in the fortresses: for they fought against Israel.
42So Demetrius sent unto Jonathan, saying, I will not only do this for thee and thy people, but I will greatly honour thee and thy nation, if opportunity serve.
43Now therefore thou shalt do well, if thou send me men to help me; for all my forces are gone from me.
44Upon this Jonathan sent him three thousand strong men unto Antioch: and when they came to the king, the king was very glad of their coming.
45Howbeit they that were of the city gathered themselves together into the midst of the city, to the number of an hundred and twenty thousand men, and would have slain the king.
46Wherefore the king fled into the court, but they of the city kept the passages of the city, and began to fight.
47Then the king called to the Jews for help, who came unto him all at once, and dispersing themselves through the city slew that day in the city to the number of an hundred thousand.
48Also they set fire on the city, and gat many spoils that day, and delivered the king.
49So when they of the city saw that the Jews had got the city as they would, their courage was abated: wherefore they made supplication to the king, and cried, saying,
50Grant us peace, and let the Jews cease from assaulting us and the city.
51With that they cast away their weapons, and made peace; and the Jews were honoured in the sight of the king, and in the sight of all that were in his realm; and they returned to Jerusalem, having great spoils.
52So king Demetrius sat on the throne of his kingdom, and the land was quiet before him.
53Nevertheless he dissembled in all that ever he spake, and estranged himself from Jonathan, neither rewarded he him according to the benefits which he had received of him, but troubled him very sore.
54After this returned Tryphon, and with him the young child Antiochus, who reigned, and was crowned.
55Then there gathered unto him all the men of war, whom Demetrius had put away, and they fought against Demetrius, who turned his back and fled.
56Moreover Tryphon took the elephants, and won Antioch.
57At that time young Antiochus wrote unto Jonathan, saying, I confirm thee in the high priesthood, and appoint thee ruler over the four governments, and to be one of the king’s friends.
58Upon this he sent him golden vessels to be served in, and gave him leave to drink in gold, and to be clothed in purple, and to wear a golden buckle.
59His brother Simon also he made captain from the place called The ladder of Tyrus unto the borders of Egypt.
60Then Jonathan went forth, and passed through the cities beyond the water, and all the forces of Syria gathered themselves unto him for to help him: and when he came to Ascalon, they of the city met him honourably.
61From whence he went to Gaza, but they of Gaza shut him out; wherefore he laid siege unto it, and burned the suburbs thereof with fire, and spoiled them.
62Afterward, when they of Gaza made supplication unto Jonathan, he made peace with them, and took the sons of their chief men for hostages, and sent them to Jerusalem, and passed through the country unto Damascus.
63Now when Jonathan heard that Demetrius’ princes were come to Cades, which is in Galilee, with a great power, purposing to remove him out of the country,
64He went to meet them, and left Simon his brother in the country.
65Then Simon encamped against Bethsura and fought against it a long season, and shut it up:
66But they desired to have peace with him, which he granted them, and then put them out from thence, and took the city, and set a garrison in it.
67As for Jonathan and his host, they pitched at the water of Gennesar, from whence betimes in the morning they gat them to the plain of Nasor.
68And, behold, the host of strangers met them in the plain, who, having laid men in ambush for him in the mountains, came themselves over against him.
69So when they that lay in ambush rose out of their places and joined battle, all that were of Jonathan’s side fled;
70Insomuch as there was not one of them left, except Mattathias the son of Absalom, and Judas the son of Calphi, the captains of the host.
71Then Jonathan rent his clothes, and cast earth upon his head, and prayed.
72Afterwards turning again to battle, he put them to flight, and so they ran away.
73Now when his own men that were fled saw this, they turned again unto him, and with him pursued them to Cades, even unto their own tents, and there they camped.
74So there were slain of the heathen that day about three thousand men: but Jonathan returned to Jerusalem.
121Now when Jonathan saw that time served him, he chose certain men, and sent them to Rome, for to confirm and renew the friendship that they had with them.
2He sent letters also to the Lacedemonians, and to other places, for the same purpose.
3So they went unto Rome, and entered into the senate, and said, Jonathan the high priest, and the people of the Jews, sent us unto you, to the end ye should renew the friendship, which ye had with them, and league, as in former time.
4Upon this the Romans gave them letters unto the governors of every place that they should bring them into the land of Judea peaceably.
5And this is the copy of the letters which Jonathan wrote to the Lacedemonians:
6Jonathan the high priest, and the elders of the nation, and the priests, and the other of the Jews, unto the Lacedemonians their brethren send greeting:
7There were letters sent in times past unto Onias the high priest from Darius, who reigned then among you, to signify that ye are our brethren, as the copy here underwritten doth specify.
8At which time Onias entreated the ambassador that was sent honourably, and received the letters, wherein declaration was made of the league and friendship.
9Therefore we also, albeit we need none of these things, that we have the holy books of scripture in our hands to comfort us,
10Have nevertheless attempted to send unto you for the renewing of brotherhood and friendship, lest we should become strangers unto you altogether: for there is a long time passed since ye sent unto us.
11We therefore at all times without ceasing, both in our feasts, and other convenient days, do remember you in the sacrifices which we offer, and in our prayers, as reason is, and as it becometh us to think upon our brethren:
12And we are right glad of your honour.
13As for ourselves, we have had great troubles and wars on every side, forsomuch as the kings that are round about us have fought against us.
14Howbeit we would not be troublesome unto you, nor to others of our confederates and friends, in these wars:
15For we have help from heaven that succoureth us, so as we are delivered from our enemies, and our enemies are brought under foot.
16For this cause we chose Numenius the son of Antiochus, and Antipater the son of Jason, and sent them unto the Romans, to renew the amity that we had with them, and the former league.
17We commanded them also to go unto you, and to salute and to deliver you our letters concerning the renewing of our brotherhood.
18Wherefore now ye shall do well to give us an answer thereto.
19And this is the copy of the letters which Oniares sent.
20Areus king of the Lacedemonians to Onias the high priest, greeting:
21It is found in writing, that the Lacedemonians and Jews are brethren, and that they are of the stock of Abraham:
22Now therefore, since this is come to our knowledge, ye shall do well to write unto us of your prosperity.
23We do write back again to you, that your cattle and goods are our’s, and our’s are your’s We do command therefore our ambassadors to make report unto you on this wise.
24Now when Jonathan heard that Demebius’ princes were come to fight against him with a greater host than afore,
25He removed from Jerusalem, and met them in the land of Amathis: for he gave them no respite to enter his country.
26He sent spies also unto their tents, who came again, and told him that they were appointed to come upon them in the night season.
27Wherefore so soon as the sun was down, Jonathan commanded his men to watch, and to be in arms, that all the night long they might be ready to fight: also he sent forth centinels round about the host.
28But when the adversaries heard that Jonathan and his men were ready for battle, they feared, and trembled in their hearts, and they kindled fires in their camp.
29Howbeit Jonathan and his company knew it not till the morning: for they saw the lights burning.
30Then Jonathan pursued after them, but overtook them not: for they were gone over the river Eleutherus.
31Wherefore Jonathan turned to the Arabians, who were called Zabadeans, and smote them, and took their spoils.
32And removing thence, he came to Damascus, and so passed through all the country,
33Simon also went forth, and passed through the country unto Ascalon, and the holds there adjoining, from whence he turned aside to Joppa, and won it.
34For he had heard that they would deliver the hold unto them that took Demetrius’ part; wherefore he set a garrison there to keep it.
35After this came Jonathan home again, and calling the elders of the people together, he consulted with them about building strong holds in Judea,
36And making the walls of Jerusalem higher, and raising a great mount between the tower and the city, for to separate it from the city, that so it might be alone, that men might neither sell nor buy in it.
37Upon this they came together to build up the city, forasmuch as part of the wall toward the brook on the east side was fallen down, and they repaired that which was called Caphenatha.
38Simon also set up Adida in Sephela, and made it strong with gates and bars.
39Now Tryphon went about to get the kingdom of Asia, and to kill Antiochus the king, that he might set the crown upon his own head.
40Howbeit he was afraid that Jonathan would not suffer him, and that he would fight against him; wherefore he sought a way how to take Jonathan, that he might kill him. So he removed, and came to Bethsan.
41Then Jonathan went out to meet him with forty thousand men chosen for the battle, and came to Bethsan.
42Now when Tryphon saw Jonathan came with so great a force, he durst not stretch his hand against him;
43But received him honourably, and commended him unto all his friends, and gave him gifts, and commanded his men of war to be as obedient unto him, as to himself.
44Unto Jonathan also he said, Why hast thou brought all this people to so great trouble, seeing there is no war betwixt us?
45Therefore send them now home again, and choose a few men to wait on thee, and come thou with me to Ptolemais, for I will give it thee, and the rest of the strong holds and forces, and all that have any charge: as for me, I will return and depart: for this is the cause of my coming.
46So Jonathan believing him did as he bade him, and sent away his host, who went into the land of Judea.
47And with himself he retained but three thousand men, of whom he sent two thousand into Galilee, and one thousand went with him.
48Now as soon as Jonathan entered into Ptolemais, they of Ptolemais shut the gates and took him, and all them that came with him they slew with the sword.
49Then sent Tryphon an host of footmen and horsemen into Galilee, and into the great plain, to destroy all Jonathan’s company.
50But when they knew that Jonathan and they that were with him were taken and slain, they encouraged one another; and went close together, prepared to fight.
51They therefore that followed upon them, perceiving that they were ready to fight for their lives, turned back again.
52Whereupon they all came into the land of Judea peaceably, and there they bewailed Jonathan, and them that were with him, and they were sore afraid; wherefore all Israel made great lamentation.
53Then all the heathen that were round about then sought to destroy them: for said they, They have no captain, nor any to help them: now therefore let us make war upon them, and take away their memorial from among men.